The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, like most toll agencies around the world, has been closely observing the early adopters of All-Electronic Tolling (AET). Removing all cash payment options can result in fewer delays, reduced emissions and lower operating costs – however AET also carries financial and operational risks and so the business case for moving to AET should be closely examined. Pursuant to this, and leading a multi-consultancy team, IBI Group examined the operational, financial and customer impact of moving to AET at the PANYNJ. The project deliverables included a Concept of Operations, which described how PANYNJ’s tolling business would operate in a cashless environment, a financial model, which examined the business case of moving to AET by considering the net impact on costs and revenues, a transaction model which models the impact on the numbers and types of transactions (such as tag, video) under various operational AET scenarios, and a customer behavior model to understand likely customer response to AET implementation options. In addition to this, a legislative review examined the extent to which existing legislation might support an AET system.